The First World War Essay
First world war: 15 legacies still with us today | World news ...
The great war may have been destructive, but it also generated so many startling developments – in medicine, warfare, geopolitics and social relations - that its influence still resonates today.
The First World War Essay
When citizens were not forced into wartime service but instead voluntarily gave their time, money, and talents, the real winner was the national war effort morale was boosted as civilians felt they were making a contribution of their choice to the war effort, and the government benefited from the human and material resources freely given. As discussed earlier, canadian society valued volunteering very highly in this period, wartime or not. And, it was difficult to arrange sufficient donors and surgeons when multiple patients simultaneously required transfusion.
Across canada, during both wars, canadians engaged in all manners of voluntary service felt that they were an important part of something bigger and more powerful than themselves. Patriotic association of the women of newfoundland 1914-18 in baldwin, douglas o. As robert rutherdale writes of the first world war, home-front activities gave civilians the opportunity to apply perceptions of themselves as men and women to wartime settings, to participate in a national enterprise of protection or service through the immediacy of local settings.
These service bars acted as a tangible, visible link between a womans home front iode voluntary service and the military service of her relative(s). The cpf, canadas leading war charity of the first world war, was noticeably absent from the second world war. Modifications replacing the syringes with tubing and stopcock devices simplified the process, making it possible for a single physician to perform a transfusion.
Wilson and the canadian red cross in newfoundland, 1940-1945 in back the attack! Canadian women during the second world war, at home and abroad gregor, frances. In hopes of providing for soldiers dependents while avoiding these inconsistencies and resentments, the role played by the cpf in the first world war was instead assumed by the federal government when the second world war broke out in 1939. Other artifacts offer insight into how canadians prepared themselves to deal with the worst and what they imagined the worst might be.
Best, the canadian red cross society, and canadas first national blood donation program in oppenheimer, melanie. Citrated blood (usually without dextrose) became the method of choice for most allied medical forces, although paraffin tube and syringe methods (each with a variety of adaptations) were also widely used. .
Citrate and dextrose were sterilized separately, then mixed in a two liter bottle (the larger bottle necessitated by the volume of dextrose needed). Given womens traditional exclusion from combat roles, voluntary opportunities for wartime service were particularly important for women who wished to throw their support behind the nation at war. Relief agencies and prisoners of war, 1939-1945 in glassford, sarah. Many citizens seem to have been genuinely stirred by appeals to their patriotism and wished to contribute to victory. First, these artifacts tell us what behaviours or activities were considered sufficiently important for organizations to try to convince canadians to do them.
Poetry of the First World War: An Anthology (Oxford World's ...
The First World War produced an extraordinary flowering of poetic talent. Its poets mark the conflict in ways that are both intensely personal and as enduring as any monument.
The First World War Essay
Volunteering in the First and Second World War | Wartime Canada
Volunteering was an integral part of the “total war” Canadians experienced during the First and Second World Wars, offering civilians a meaningful and practical way to contribute to the national war effort.
The First World War Essay
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Amazon.com: The First World War: A Very Short Introduction ...
Modifications replacing the syringes with tubing and stopcock devices simplified the process, making it possible for a single physician to perform a transfusion. The artifacts they left behind provide fascinating glimpses into the work they did and why they did it. Although voluntary efforts could at times be highly inefficient, the canadian government (like other wartime governments) encouraged and supported its citizens voluntary activities. Given the difficulties and unexplained reactions, interest and trust in transfusion had significantly waned by the turn of the century, especially among european physicians. It was impossible to gauge how much blood actually passed from donor to patient, and clotting remained a major problem.
As discussed earlier, canadian society valued volunteering very highly in this period, wartime or not. A highly-choreographed team kept syringes in constant motion from donor to patient. At the rockefeller institute in new york, peyton rous and j. Prior to transfusion, excess anticoagulant was removed and the blood poured into a new bottle, filtering it through a gauze plug to remove any clots or debris. John ambulance brigade volunteer nursing auxiliaries in wartime and post-war halifax in kapp, richard w.
Whether for the benefit of themselves or others, canadians responded to these appeals. There he drew up plans for what many consider the worlds first blood bank. Watt donated his boat a 78-foot motor cruiser to assist the royal canadian navy volunteer reserve with training. Throughout both world wars, volunteers attempted to anticipate future challenges, as well as to deal with those already existing, through concrete, hands-on voluntary work. Many volunteer-related artifacts of the two world wars therefore relate to this public relations side of volunteering a sea of pamphlets, posters, newspaper advertisements, and other propaganda. After the war, keynes co-founded londons blood transfusion service. Canadian children were barred from active military duty for obvious reasons, but many of them were keen to participate in other ways. Before the war, lee, an early advocate of blood grouping, had sent robertson to work with rous at the rockefeller institute. A method to suture blood vessels together was devised by alexis carrel in 1902 and improved by george crile in 1905. This meant that not only voluntary organizations and war charities, but also the government itself, had to spend an extraordinary amount of time and effort wooing public support throughout both wars.By the time the First World War ended in 1918, eight million people had died in what had been perhaps the most apocalyptic episode the world had known.
World War II - WikipediaWorld War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
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Chief among these was the propensity of blood to clot, reducing its flow and clogging equipment used to transfer it. The iode, one of canadas leading national womens organizations, launched a campaign to raise funds for a hospital ship immediately upon the outbreak of war in 1914, calling upon canadian women to play their natural role of healing and saving wounded troops. For canadians who could not or would not participate in the fighting, volunteering offered an alternative means of contributing to the war effort. Brown of boston collected donor blood into a glass cylinder that had first been coated with a film of paraffin. Among them were roger lee and oswald hope robertson, with base hospital no Buy now The First World War Essay
Artifacts related to wartime volunteering can tell us a great deal about what exactly was being done by volunteers in the two wars, and how they were doing it. The history of wartime volunteering is integral to understanding the history of canada during the first and second world wars. There were enormous similarities between such activities in the first and second world wars so much so that, unless they are explicitly labelled with a date, it can be difficult to determine whether particular artifacts (knitting instructions or postcards, for example) come from the first or second war. Volunteering is about more than altruism volunteers benefit from their involvement, even if it is through something as simple as the personal satisfaction of contributing to a worthy cause The First World War Essay Buy now
Canadians voluntarily donated money to war charities and invested their money in victory bonds to help the government pay for the war they provided voluntary labour to war-related charities, willingly enlisted in the military, and freely decided to apply for jobs in war-related industry or on farms. Blood transfusion is often cited as a major medical advancement of the first world war, and possible only because of innovations made shortly before the united states entered the war. For canadians who could not or would not participate in the fighting, volunteering offered an alternative means of contributing to the war effort. Importantly, they used sharp-pointed metal needles inserted through the skin directly into the veins, eliminating the need to expose the blood vessels by incision Buy The First World War Essay at a discount
Whether for the benefit of themselves or others, canadians responded to these appeals. Moss in baltimore had begun to call for abo blood group matching of donors and transfusion recipients. Relief agencies and prisoners of war, 1939-1945 in glassford, sarah. Angels canadian voluntary aid detachment nurses in the great war in quiney, linda j. Convalescing troops often volunteered as donors for more seriously wounded comrades.
Businesses sometimes offered in-kind donations of potential use to voluntary organizations or the military shaving cream, musical instruments, or whatever was their special stock-in-trade. A method to suture blood vessels together was devised by alexis carrel in 1902 and improved by george crile in 1905 Buy Online The First World War Essay
War the canadian red cross society, 1885-1939 (phd diss. Using preserved blood allowed it to be stockpiled and ready when needed. Through voluntary means canadians contributed tens (perhaps hundreds) of millions of dollars in cash and kind to the two war efforts resources that otherwise would have come from government coffers (sinking the country further into debt) or been done without. Wilson and the canadian red cross in newfoundland, 1940-1945 in back the attack! Canadian women during the second world war, at home and abroad gregor, frances. Given the difficulties and unexplained reactions, interest and trust in transfusion had significantly waned by the turn of the century, especially among european physicians Buy The First World War Essay Online at a discount
Some organizations, accustomed to greater independence (being, after all, non-governmental organizations), vigorously protested these restrictions, but to little effect. Canada went to war in the first half of the twentieth century, the majority of canadians responded ready, aye, ready! And voluntarily gave generously of themselves and their resources. Best, the canadian red cross society, and canadas first national blood donation program in oppenheimer, melanie. For an organization to issue this kind of appeal generally meant that either people were not used to doing a certain thing and needed to be asked or gently reminded or the message was meant to chastise the public canadians had already been asked to do a certain thing and were failing in their duty to do so The First World War Essay For Sale
Martin burrell (ottawa kings printer, 1918) melanie oppenheimer, controlling civilian volunteering canada and australia during the second world war, verdun, quebecs second world war civilian protection committee offers a good example. Since women were excluded from direct participation in the fighting (although nursing sisters, vads, and second world war members of the womens armed services got closer than most), such appeals to women to do their bit through voluntary work and donations were widely heeded. When time and facilities allowed, some donor blood was typed and cross-matched prior to transfusion. As rutherdale points out, womens voluntary work was often discussed in terms of service (to soldiers, to refugees, to the nation), while mens voluntary work was often portrayed as being about protection (of the home front, of soldiers overseas, of the nation) For Sale The First World War Essay
And no, they were not keen on the odd items arriving on their doorstep! Volunteering artifacts can sometimes help us grasp the ways in which communities understood and expressed the importance of their voluntary work in the context of the wider war effort. Whether they gave time, expertise, labour, money, or goods or simply voluntarily adhered to officially-encouraged behaviours canadians used voluntary work to make a patriotic contribution to the war, find a sense of comfort andor accomplishment, fulfill social expectations, and assert their place in canadian society. John ambulance brigade volunteer nursing auxiliaries in wartime and post-war halifax in kapp, richard w. Canadians to pursue those roles in new ways with the added lustre of doing patriotic service in the process Sale The First World War Essay
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