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Essays On Hepatitis C

This reinforcement pathway, which is composed of both central nervous system structures and endogenous neurotransmitters communicating between these structures, has been termed the reward pathway(1). Instead of experiencing the negative effects of alcohol the next day (hangover) or years later (liver disease), they experience unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing in closer proximity to ingestion which opposes the normally immediate positive reward of the drug (see above). Mechanisms of drug reward beyond dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.

Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in nicotine addiction but has not been shown to be effective in cocaine addiction. The hypothalamus is involved in every aspect of endocrine, visceral, and autonomic functions, and it is able to influence eating, drinking, sexual activity, aversion, rage, and pleasure (1,9). When barbiturates, benzodiazapines or alcohol interact with the gaba receptor, they inhibit the release of gaba onto the dopaminergic neurons (1,2,3).

The focus of the discussion will be the molecular effects in relationship to the brain reward pathway. After laying the foundation of the anatomy and physiology of brain reward, the specific interactions of drugs of abuse will be examined. Cocaines effects on the reward system are so powerful that it may override other generally gratifying reinforcers money, safety, loved ones, morality and even survival may become less important to the abuser than obtaining and using cocaine (2).

Methadone, an orally administered opiate, is associated with less risk of acquiring hiv, hepatitis c, and criminal activity - all of which are highly associated with heroin dependence (2). Genetic studies on animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding. Also important in the function of the limbic system is the limbic striatum, which includes the nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate nucleus and the putamen (9).

Human studies investigating the genetics of drug abuse consist of either adoption or twin studies (1). Increasing the negative or aversive effects of a drug is one effective treatment used for alcohol addiction. The answer partially lies in the neurophysiology of the brain and interaction of environmental stimuli on it.

In other words, the mfb is like a power line of neurons connecting the structures of the reward pathway with other brain structures. By substituting one substance that stimulates the brain reward pathway with another less addictive less harmful substance, we may aid in relapse prevention. Drugs of abuse may accomplish this by acting directly on dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. The primary nuclei (or parts) of the limbic system include the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and anterior cingulate gyrus (9). When neurons fire they release neurotransmitter, and since drugs of abuse (doa) inhibit these neurons, they release less gaba.


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Essays On Hepatitis C

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Essays On Hepatitis C This command center then sends out signals in the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Boyle and T. Limbic regions such as the amygdala, the septum and the thalamus provide input to the reward pathway concerning motivational and emotional variables. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of genetic and environmental influences. Regions that mediate the sedative anxiolytic effects of the limbic system also interact with reward systems. Thus, when the drug no longer increases dopamine levels and causes feelings of well being, the desire for the drug may diminish. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Disulfiram (antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is used to create negative effects with the ingestion of alcohol (1,2). Thus, nicotine leads to increased dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway like other drugs of abuse. The link between the brain reward system and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be seen through experiments on animals where electrodes are placed into the nucleus accumbens (part of the brains reward system) under conditions of imposed environmental stress.
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    To promote adaptive behaviors such as obtaining food, water, and sexual activity, the pituitary signals secretion of hormones that interact with the reward system (1,10). Many students find essay writing to be an especially daunting task. General strategies for pharmacological treatment of drug addiction include creating aversion to the addicted drug, bringing consequences or punishment closer to the reinforcement of drug use, modification of neurotransmitters to decrease drug intake, and long-term substitution with a less addictive and cross-tolerant medication (1). Unfortunately, the negative consequences of drug use often come much later and more unpredictably compared to the immediate pairing of drug administration and reward. Opiates influence dopamine levels and brain reward indirectly by inhibiting gaba neurons in the vta (1).

    Next, the reward pathway interacts with the basal ganglia and cerebellum to modify motor activity. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well. Drugs of abuse may accomplish this by acting directly on dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. These stimuli are analogous to a complex array of music each a melody of summation in the form of endocrine hormones, blood temperature, blood osmolarity, blood volume, and neurotransmitters are deciphered and directed by the hypothalamus. Dopaminergic neurons making up the mfb or power line of the brain reward system run from the vta to other structures involved in brain reward.

    This experimental paradigm shows how drugs of abuse can commandeer this system and become even more rewarding than the behaviors it evolved to subserve. Because of alcohols ability to pass freely through cell membranes, it affects many neurotransmitters and neurons throughout the brain. Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents. As noted earlier, substances of abuse affect the brain reward pathway, which is made of neurons that release chemicals when they are stimulated. Through the same mechanism, they both increase dopamine in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). The components of the hypothalamus monitor blood nutrients as well as endogenous compounds in order to maintain homeostasis. Drugs of abuse stimulate this brain reward pathway in a similar fashion, and this is why substance users experience feelings of pleasure or high when they use them (1,2). The central reward pathway of the brain sends information to and receives input from many other brain structures the reticular activating system (ras), the central gray around the aqueduct of sylvius, limbic regions, and the basal ganglia and cerebellum. . Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated.

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    Next, the molecular physiology of the reward pathway will be delineated. Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazapines (2,3,4) stimulate neurons in the ventral tegmental area the final common action of most substances of abuse is stimulation of the brain reward pathway by increasing dopamine. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well. Thus, serotonin modulates the reward pathway through various mechanisms by interacting with different receptors throughout the brain. Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in nicotine addiction but has not been shown to be effective in cocaine addiction.

    The immediate negative consequence of drinking now competes with the normally immediate positive reward of drinking to combat illness Buy now Essays On Hepatitis C

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    The net result is disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. By changing the time course of positive and negative drug effects through behavioral interventions or pharmaceutical interventions, we may be able to better treat addictions in the future. Pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been developed to decrease drug use by influencing the brain reward system. In humans, the euphoria induced by amphetamine administration is attenuated by dopamine blocking agents. Amphetamines both decrease the re-uptake of dopamine and directly increase the neuronal release of dopamine (1,2,3,4) many experiments have shown the importance of dopamine in the rewarding effects of amphetamines Essays On Hepatitis C Buy now

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    Thus, cocaine stimulates the brain reward system more effectively than the behaviors that the reward system evolved to reinforce! , serotonin, and norepinephrine) re-uptake from the synaptic cleft (1,2,3,4,6,7). Thus, dopaminergic neurons in the reward pathway have been shown to be important in the reinforcing effects of cocaine (2). The closer positive and negative effects are to the actual time of drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the drug. However the relationship between serotonin and dopamine release is complex in that, serotonin has numerous receptor types and its regulation of dopamine release is at times inhibitory and at other times excitatory (1,2) Buy Essays On Hepatitis C at a discount

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    For example, dopamine blocking agents have been shown to diminish intake of all drugs of abuse in animal studies (2). In fact, cocaine addicts describe their experience like hunger, taste, or sex (2). The net result is disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of genetic and environmental influences. The central reward pathway of the brain sends information to and receives input from many other brain structures the reticular activating system (ras), the central gray around the aqueduct of sylvius, limbic regions, and the basal ganglia and cerebellum Buy Online Essays On Hepatitis C

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    The closer positive and negative effects are to the actual time of drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the drug. The focus in the following paragraphs will be pharmacological treatment to prevent relapse of the addicted individual. Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated. A balance between the negative effects of the drug and positive feelings associated with stimulation of the brain reward system determine if an individual will enjoy and continue using the substance or not (1,2). Gaba is an inhibitory neurotransmitter located diffusely throughout the brain.

    The effects of serotoninergic medications on drug self-administration may be due to their effects on motivational factors, as opposed to the specific reinforcing effects of the drug by modulating the reinforcing properties of other reinforcers such as food, water, alcohol and drugs of abuse (2) Buy Essays On Hepatitis C Online at a discount

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    Disulfiram (antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is used to create negative effects with the ingestion of alcohol (1,2). If the point of injection is not within the brain reward pathway, reinforcement will not occur. Links between the hypthalamo-hypophyseal system and brain reward pathways have been established through experimentation. Solhkhah, r wilens, t pharmacotherapy of adolescent alcohol and other drug use disorders. Genetic studies on animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding.

    Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents. By acting on these neurons, nicotine increases release of dopamine in the na nicotinic antagonists, chemicals which block the actions of nicotine at its receptor, inhibit dopamine release while nicotinic agonists increase dopamine release (1,2) Essays On Hepatitis C For Sale

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    These drugs not only stimulate areas of the brain that have evolved to encourage adaptive behaviors they stimulate these areas more effectively than the survival behaviors themselves! Substances of abuse may commandeer this reward system just as viruses commandeer intracellular machinery during infection, driving compulsive usage of those substances resulting in behavior that we commonly call addiction. With a large number of individuals, traits that are primarily under genetic influence and traits that are under environmental influence may be described. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of genetic and environmental influences. Conceptually, the function of the limbic system is to monitor internal homeostasis, mediate memory, mediate learning, and experience emotion For Sale Essays On Hepatitis C

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    Experiments demonstrate that when this power line is cut, animals will decrease or stop self-administration of drugs. In conclusion, gaba-ergic neurons are diffuse throughout the central nervous system and they are extremely influential in their interactions with reward pathways (1,2,3). This command center then sends out signals in the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Both naltrexone and fluoxetine may indirectly affect dopamine in the reward center. For example, the later potential negative consequences of chronic drinking (such as liver disease) may not be as important as the immediate rewarding positive effects of drinking Sale Essays On Hepatitis C

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